Para mas dai malingawan an mga bagay-bagay na daan, uya an saro sa mga serye nin pagrepaso kan sarong tema na hinugot sa memorya asin imaginasyon na ginuno sa alintataw kan mga gugurang na dai tugot na malingaw.
So that certain stories of olden days will not be relegated into the dustbin of oblivion, here is one part series review of a subject extracted from memory and recollection of images from ancient minds who refuse to forget.
An tema iyo an manongod sa pagsukol o pag-valor sa komersiyanteng kantidad kan satuyang pang-oro-aldaw na konsumo, partikularmente an bagas - sa makaluma asin atrasadong panahon nin transakyon sa mercado.
The topic is on measurement and commercial value of stuff we consume daily, particularly that of rice commodity - during those backward trading times.
An panahon kan sakuyang reperensya iyo an años na pagawagaw na an pagretiro kan dekada sisenta, abante sa pag-atubang sa bag-ong taon na daing kasigurohan, kasabay an pagdatong kan rehimeng martial law. Sa panahon nin militaristang batasan, malibyanong naimplementar an mga bag-ong diktang sistema.
My time line reference are those remaining few years ending the decade of 60’s, onwards unto the dawning of new era of uncertainty, around time at the onset of martial law regime. Under authoritarian rule then, drastic implementation of new order are prevalent.
Ini man an panahon na nagkakaigwa pa sana ako nin kadikit na pagmalangmang sa agi-agi nin buhay, sa pangalagkalag sa kapalibutan asin paghimate sa hiro kan komunidad. Sa ayuda nin pahapot-hapot sa mga ka-kontempor-aniong amigo asin konsultasyon sa wisyo
This is the time of my earliest conscious memory of living, just learning to periscope on things around me, and having the gut feel of impression on my community. Aided by quizzing some of my contemporary bosom friends, and consulting the wisdom of our elders, this bit of history was made possible – delivered in a way of just telling a casual story.
Sa sakuyang amay na panahon, an komersyo nin barakalan nin bagas pigpa-agi sa takad, na kun sain an konsiderasyon sa kwenta nakapabor sa bulto kan produkto, bakong sa ulay nin gabat sa paagi nin mekanikal na timbangan.
In my earlier time, commercial rice trading is consummated by way of determining its volume using simple handmade measuring containers rather than by its weight being determined by mechanical equipment which is a weighing scale.
An pinakahalangkaw na takad iyo an sarong kaban na bulto. Nakalaag sa mahib-og na sako. Ini an suanoy na sako na an materyales matuos na hinabol o garong sinaralapid na hinag-ot na abaka. An gadot na sako minasalo nin 24 gantas, dangan tinatahi nin torsidong kanyamo tanganing an pakabuka maisara. Por kabanes an barakalan kan mga para-kupada, na iyo man an paratienda nin tingi-tingi sa kadakling katawhan sa banwa sa paagi nin por ganta, o baya, por litro.
The highest unit of volume purchase is by cavan, contained in thick old fashioned sack. Those sacks are durable and made out of woven abaca mini-twines and strands. A well filled sack swallows 24 gantas, then sewn using thick thread to close its opening. Bulk buyers are the ones who in turn retails to the end-user’s market on per ganta or liter base unit.
An Gantahan boda Litrohan na takadan - hinaman
The Ganta and Liter measuring boxes – were handcrafted by a top caliber local carpenter. Using 5pcs of small wooden tablets of accurate dimensions; fastening them together to realize a perfect cubic form. These are then registered with the appropriate government agency for proper accreditation. Under strict supervision of deputized municipal government employees, they see to it that the boxes were notched with “seal of standard”, looked like an earring that dangles through copper wire on one cubic side. Even the small plain piece of rectangular scraping wood, must also be tagged with such seal.
An minasunod na talastas iyo an mga praktikal na sumada:
- Sa sarong (1) ganta, katumpar an may tolong (3) litro, despues
72 litros igwa an sarong kaban o sako.
The following accounts are practical summations:
- One (1) ganta is equivalent to three (3) liters, therefore,
72 liters are there in all in one cavan or sack.
Apisar sa mga opisyal na nasambit na takadan, may laen pang takadan na pig-usar an katawhan sa saindang sadiring pagkaoroyonan. Namukna an karagdagan na porma nin takadan por sobre siguro sa pag-insister
Aside from those mentioned standard measurements of the trade, there are other forms of volume containers that evolved in the populace by their own accord. These additional measuring variations are probably a way to accommodate insistent and recurring odd quantitative dealings. One way of establishing lesser denomination, and probably to cater less privileged consumers with less purchasing capacity. It is in this sense that a measuring tin can called “Salmonan” was thence adapted. Such was a flat pear-shaped empty can of sardines having a popular brand name, “Rosebowl”. A succeeding and similar but minute volume tin can was called “medyahan”. The least was a small in cylindrical form called “lechehan”, a salvaged container out of Darigold, Carnation and Milkmaid, all are popular canned condensed milk products then. .
Lakop an paggamit
The use of Salmonan, Medyahan, Lechehan, are widespread in domestic homes as their convenient standard of measure for their private barter trading needs.
Inapod na “Salmonan”, ninhuli sa ngaran
- An sarong (1) “Salmon” kun siring may duwang “Medya”.
- An sarong (1) “Salmon” katampad ning 1-1/2 “Leche”
Called “Salmonan”, with reference to the kind of fish that a Rosebowl sardines contains. Its smaller pack version called “Medyahan” , due to its exact half content opposite the big Rosebowl can. While “Lechehan” derived its name from Spanish language, which denotes - “milk”.
- One (1) “Salmon” is therefore, having two halves (medyahan)
- One (1) “Salmon” is equal to 1-1/2 “Leche”
Napag-araman na an sarong (1) ganta palan, mapapano nin 9 na leche, o kaya 6 na salmon.
An 1 litro may 3 leche o 2 salmon, o 4 na medya.
It was learned that a gantahan will be filled by a 9 full of lechehan, or 6 measures of salmonan. A liter has 3 leches, or 2 salmons, or 4 medyas.
An nagdadalagan na presyo
The prevalent price range in that span of time, depending also on classification of rice quality, more or less, is P0.80 to P1.20 per ganta.
Kun gusto ta maaraman an kantidad sa kuarta
1 ganta = P1.00/ganta = 3 litros
1 litro = P1.00 ÷ 3 ltr = P0.30 sentimos + 3 manaro
1 kaban = 24gantas x P1.00/ganta = P24.00
If we want to determine the price, let us use some mathematical sense. Of course, we add the price range and divide it by 2 in order to obtain the weighted average price for purposes of calculation. So, (P0.80 + P1.20) divide by 2 = P1.00.00/ganta
1 ganta = P1.00/ganta = 3 liters
1 liter = P1.00 ÷ 3 ltr = P0.30 centavos + 3 cents
1 cavan = 24gantas x P1.00/ganta = P24.00
Uminabot an panahon
Time was finally due to convert the system of measurement. Those measuring cubes were discarded in favor of the weighing scale. The first type of equipment used was the old fashioned beam scale called “ bascula romana” It’s an elongated metal placed hanging, with a solid piece of iron on the left- side which is slideable back in forth; having hook on the right-side that which carries the load. Indicative weight is read on engraved scale marks spread along the body of the beam, at the moment when both sides are in equilibrium.
Sa madaling sabi, an baskula romana iyo an kawangis na kasangkapan na bitbit sa walang kamot kan simbolo kan hustisya sa husgado na sarong babaying may halabang sayang puti asin nakapiring an mga mata.
In other words, “bascula romana” resembles the balance scale held on the left hand by that blindfolded lady in a long white gown, whom representing the symbol of justice.
Kan opisyal na an kuntodong implementasyon kan timbangan sa komersyo nin barakalan nin bagas, nagpaluwas an munisipyo nin selyadong timbangan na mas moderno sa baskula romano. Ini an timbangan na nakapatong sa lebeladong pasun-adan, sarong lata-lata na may “spring” na mekanismo sa laog, may bilog na pandok sa atubangan na palibot nin numero dangan may kamot na kawangis kan orasan, may hitsura nin bandehadong tanso na naluto an ibabaw, na iyong parasalo sa produktong kaipuhan maaraman an gabat.
When full implementation of weighing scale as a means of valuation in rice trade are adapted, the local government issued a calibrated table scale, a far cry advanced in technology than the “bascula romana”. It is mostly made of tin with spring mechanism inside its main body. The frontage looks seemingly the face of a round clock with pointer hands that passes around numbered calibrations. On top was a brass tray that carries the product that need to be weighed.
An bersyon sa timbangan na may puntos na kilogramo, sarong metrikong sistema. Ini an panahon na nagpoon pa sanang praktison sa Pilipinas an makisumaro sa paggamit kan metrikong sistema bilang unibersal na batayan sa pagsukol kan halos entering nasyones, alinsunod sa “International System of Units (SI)”.
This version of weighing scale in kilogram unit is called metric system of measurement. This is just the early start of the
Sa romdom ko, kan mga panahon man na ini idineklara kan estado an martial law, Setyembre 21, 1972, na may isinusulong na bansag na “Bag-ong Lipunan”.
I surmised this was around time martial law was declared,
Alagad dai man tolos binayaan, o dai tolos nalingaw, nin huli gayod sa haloy na pagkatood kan tawo sa dating kaugalian nin tarakadan, kaya sinusod man giraray na pagkasunduon an takadan sa timbangan.
Uya an mga matimatikong deribasyon:
1 kilo = 4 leche = (2 salmon + 1 leche) = (1 litro+1 leche)
1 ganta = (2kilo + 1 leche) = 3 salmon = 6 medya
1 kaban = 54 kilos
But then it was not outrightly abandoned, perhaps old habits are really hard to forget, So, transitory compromise was contemplated, then, mutual marriage of volume and weight measurements was reached.
These were the mathematical derivations:
1 kg. = 4 leche = (2 salmon + 1 leche) = (1 litro + 1 leche)
1ganta = (2 kgs. + 1 leche} = 3 slamon = 6 medya
1 sack = 54 kgs.
Ngapit pa, napara an suanoy na kolor kapeng sako na garong de-kustora sa bagasan, rinibayan nin mahimpis asin hayakpit na sako na ipinamugtak an standard sa eksaktong timbang na 50 kilos na sana kun gadot sa bagas.
Later on, old fashioned thick sacks were no longer used in rice trading. It was replaced with new kind of sacks that are thin and just enough to contain the new standard of 50 kgs. rice per sack.
Nagiromdoman ko man an mga pangyayari, panahon na pilansar pa
I recalled that just after launching the so called New Society, there was an economic crisis highlighted by rice supply shortage. These were the times I saw people falling in line to buy RCA rice with a 2 kilo per family buying limit. RCA is an abbreviation of Rice and Corn Administration, which manages the importation of rice from outside country source, so that it can provide cheaper staple food for the people. I guess those rice came from
Sa tahaw nin katikapohan, may mga pamilya na an sinapna piglogoan pa nin giniling na mais, bantog na paboritong maluto kan mga Cebuano kan panahon, tanganing maka-ekonomiya ta medyo borobarato sa bagas. Idagdag pa na tibaad, tanganing daing gayo ganahan an parakakan ta maharaphap an kumbinasyon na bagas-mais sa halonan. Minsan mawar-an ka talaga nin gana ta garong marorolagtok pa ta dai man sabay na nauunog an mais boda bagas. Nakakakan ako kaan kaito kaya nasabi ko tabi.
In the middle of that crisis, some families resorted to have their steamed rice mixed with corn grits, known as favorite staple food of Cebuanos at that time, in order to at least save from cost, since corn is a little bit cheaper than rice. In addition- probably perhaps, to lessen palatability and be able to restrain sumptuous intake since that food mix is quite rough on the esophagus. Also, it is more likely one will loss appetite since most often, cooking rice-corn combination proved difficult to achieve satisfactory result due to different cooking time required by both cereals. I have experienced eating them before, that is why I can talk about it.
Sa paglipas nin nagkaperang taon, an opisina
And in the coming years, RCA was renamed NGA or National Grains Authority. By the way, RCA predecessor office was National Rice and Corn Corporation (NARICC). At present, we have National Food Authority (NFA). I seldom see queuing of poor citizens for rice rationing these days. NFA rice are almost always sold out to big business people having big warehouses. But that is already another story.